(Family Spheniscidae)

Penguins are confined to the southern hemisphere. Fourteen species of these mostly ocean-dwelling, flightless birds have been recorded in Australia, most as vagrants. The Little Penguin Eudyptula minor is the only species to breed on the Australian mainland, Tasmania and coastal islands. The Royal Penguin Eudyptes schlegeli is believed to only breed on Macquarie Island, whereas breeding populations of the King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus, Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua, Macaroni Penguin E. chrysolophus, Southern Rockhopper Penguin E. chrysocome are found within Australia as well as internationally.

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